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zoom RSS イスラマバードで開催された「”キラン図書館”、”チョキダール"の出版記念会

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2008年、
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イスラマバードの教育省研究所で開催された小さな2冊の本「”キラン図書館”、”チョキダール(警備員”)」の出版記念会に、日曜日であるにもかかわらず、在パキスタン日本大使小島夫妻が出席して下さいました。その時初めてお会いした大使が、出会いがしらに私に1冊の本を見せて、「あなたは、この報告書を知っていますか」と尋ねられました。私はその本をまだ見たことがなかったので「いえ、知りません」と答えると、大使は「昨日、私はこの報告書を読んでいて、あなたの名前を初めて知りました。実は昨日まで、イスラマバードで、日本政府とパキスタン政府がODA援助に関する合同会議を開いていて、私はたくさんの報告書を読んでいましたが、その中で特にこの報告書に目がとまったのです。ここには、あなたに関して書かれているページがあります。これを読んで感動しました。4人の米国の学者によって書かれた論文は、日本のODA政策や援助協力に対して厳しい批判を行なっているのですが、あなたの活動だけは全く違いました。そのため今日の出版記念会に出席して、ご報告しようと思ってやってきたのです」と小島大使は話された。

それから出版記念会で、私に関するアメリカの大学の報告書の全内容を、記念会の席上で読まれたのでした。http://tajimashinji.at.webry.info/201004/article_2.html
その文章は、次のような英語文で始まるのです。自慢するようで、とても恥ずかしい話ですが・・・・

Shinji Tajima, the JICA consultant to PLC, was real innovator and has left a lasting impression on the organization. This can be attributed more to the consultant's personal skills and passions rather than his formal mandate. The people in PLC fondly referred to him as a Japanese "Pathan," somebody who , once he had formed an opinion, would not be budged from it, even in the face of personal unpopularity.・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・

私はそのとき、「日本政府のODAの宣伝でもされるのか」と思っていましたが全く違いました。その日、小島大使が読まれた報告書はーこれはアメリカの全く知らない学識経験者によって、2005年に米国の大学で刊行されたものでした。確かに私は1997年から2001年までパキスタン政府の首相識字委員会でJICA派遣の識字専門家として働いたことがありましたが、私のパキスタンでの活動評価が逐一行われ、そしてそれがアメリカの大学で刊行されていたとは全く知らなかったのです。・・・・特にJICAで活動していたとき、私の活動についてJICAから評価されたことはありませんでしたし、それどころか私の識字教育活動は全く理解されていないと思っていたので非常に驚いたのです。私はいつもJICAの枠を超えて自由に活動していたので、いつもJICAには謝罪文を書く専門家でもあったからです。(笑)本当のはなしです。

しかし当時、パキスタン現地の新聞や関係者などは、活動のひとつひとつを高く評価してくれました。私は当時、JICAの活動については、ユニークな活動を行いながら、JICAの改善点をいろいろ指摘し、現地の実情に合った活動を行っていたのです。例えば、(1)刑務所に収容された子どものための図書館(キラン図書館)の設置、(2)雑草を使っての紙漉きワークショップの展開(3)物語や絵本など15冊以上、英語版・ウルドー語で刊行・配布(4)全国に1万校以上のノンフォーマル寺子屋学校の設置(5)紙芝居など多数の視聴覚資材を使っての人材養成(6)政府の識字委員会のアドバイザーとして全国の識字計画の立案など・・・です。

このレポートの紹介は、日本のODA活動について客観的な動きを知ってもらうためにも、全文を掲載します。こうした報告書があるということも参考にしていただけたら嬉しいです。在パキスタン日本大使館小島大使に感謝です。

(写真)イスラマバード出版記念会で、スピーチされる東外大鈴木教授の奥さま公子さま

Japan's Foreign Aid
Old Continuities and New Directions

(200ページから抜粋) This is an interesting case study,in that Japanese involvement in the project was limited. It involved a single consultant. Yet it is important because it exemplifies both the strengths and the weakness of the Japanese approach.controlled and could showcase the foreign visitors and donors as a sign of progressivism and innovation. She chose a dynamic advisor who launched what was then known as the Prime Minister's Literacy Commission (PMLC).

Because of the subsequent military takeover, the organization's name was changed to the Chief Executive's Literacy Commission and then the Pakistan Literacy Commission.The government of Pakistan started this project because education was a provincial subject, and the federal government wanted to have a direct role in the provision of education without going through the provincial bureaucracies., The first government of Benazir Bhutoo also wanted to have some educational initiative that the federal government directly

At the same time, the government authorities in Pakistan were being severely criticized for a dismal performance in social sectors such as primary education, particularly for girls, health , water supply, and sanitation. UNICEF argued that the existing government delivery mechanisms for reaching poor girls were too rigid, bureaucratic and expensive.

It pushed the methodology of participatory development with the extensive involvement of grassroots community-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in promoting access. The rise of the NGO as an alternative delivery mechanism for the failing state sector spread widely in the development community.

While the NGO movement in Pakistan never achieved the scale that it achieved in Bangladesh or some other parts of the world, it was very influential in setting the terms of the debate about appropriate developmental policy in the social sectors. Its greatest success lay in establishing at the grassroots level that parents in even the most backward parts of Pakistan were willing to educate girls if the intervention was suitably crafted and was embedded in the local cultural environment.

JICA, because of its mandate of dealing only with government organizations, was only a passive player in the debate. It never go around to funding any interesting pilot projects for educating girls in backward areas. Japanese involvement with PMLC can only be seen as a token effort - a compromise between partaking in the innovative loose and ill-defined world of non-formal education and yet following the constraint of working with the government. (A previous Japanese ambassador and his wife took some special interest in connecting some Japanese civic organizations with an NGO in northern Pakistan, but that was a one^off event that never became a pattern.)

Shinji Tajima, the JICA consultant to PLC, was real innovator and has left a lasting impression on the organization. This can be attributed more to the consultant's personal skills and passions rather than his formal mandate. The people in PLC fondly referred to him as a Japanese "Pathan," somebody who , once he had formed an opinion, would not be budged from it, even in the face of personal unpopularity.

JICA had no direct influence or contact with PLC. The current management did not even know the terms of reference for Shinji Tajima or of his successor. This is in some measure due to the turnover in the organization. But even people who had worked with Tajima directly did not really know what his mission was apart from providing technical assistance.

Shinji Tajima produced some teachers' aid kits that could be used for telling stories, and a textbook containing a compilation of readings. In addition, he was involved in demonstration projects on papermaking. These were distributed in the non-formal schools that were directly involved with the PLC.

The kits and the book were of extremely high quality, but their distribution was limited because of the lack of initiative showed by the government in marketing the product. If this consultant had been involved with grassroots groups outside the government, he could have made a contribution that would have affected people on a much larger scale. Shinji Tajima wrote in the popular press, and he was a true ambassador of goodwill wherever he went. He contributed to this organization even though its head changed with every change of government and was always a political appointee.

This consultant is a good example of inexpensive, small-scale technical assistance projects that work very well in the Pakistani environment of political uncertainty, governmental inefficiency, and local need.

Japan's Foreign Aid

Old Continuities and New Directions

Edited by David Arase

Professor of politics at Pomona College in Claremont

California. USA

Price: $170.00

http://books.google.co.jp/books

http://www.routledgeasianstudies.com/…/Japans-Foreign-Aid-i…

About the Book

Filling a gap in the existing literature, this book analyzes the distinctive features of Japan’s development aid, especially technical co-operation, in comparison with other donors’ aid. Incorporating a wealth of research, it discusses whether Japan is behind other leading donor countries in rethinking its aid policy and whether it lacks transparency, sensitivity to recipient needs, and a coherent and coordinated policy that targets poverty.

The volume assesses the nature and effectiveness of the administration of Japan’s aid, and explores the degree of involvement of private sector and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Including contributions from experts with direct experience with Japanese ODA, the book provides a wide range of recipient and donor viewpoints and presents important policy recommendations.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Japanese Aid to Pakistan

3. A Comparison of Japan's and the United States' Bilateral ODA Programs

4. Changes in Japanese ODA Compared to Canadian ODA

5. A Comparative Analysis of Official Development Assistance to China by Japan and Europe

6. Japanese Aid to South and Southeast Asia: A Comparative Analysis

7. ODA Policies and Practice: The Republic of Korea

8. A Comparative Study of Japan's ODA and Other Donors' Aid to Thailand

9. Aid Effectiveness: The World Bank and Japan

10. Japanese and Australian ODA

11. Japanese and British Overseas Aid Compared

12. Swedish Views on Japanese ODA

13. The Effectiveness and Future tasks of Japan's ODA in the Pacific Island Countries: A Recipient Perspective

14. An Overview of Japanese ODA to Latin America

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イスラマバードで開催された「”キラン図書館”、”チョキダール"の出版記念会 21世紀の ヒューマン・リテラシー/BIGLOBEウェブリブログ
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